Monosaccharides are the monomers of Carbohydrates. Carbohydrates make up about 1/10 of the organic matter in a cell, their functions include:
Energy Sourceage - They provide the enegry for respiration
Energy Storage - They store energy
Structure - For example Cellulose
They contain the elements Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen in the proportions Cn(H2O)n.
Monosaccharides come in many different forms, ranging from three to six carbon atoms. They all: are soluble in water, are sweet tasting and form crystals. They are grouped according to the number of Carbon atoms, being called triose, tetrose, pentose or hexose sugars, the most common being hexose sugars. Pentose and hexose sugars tend to form ring structures.
When Glucose forms a ring structure, it can do so in two different ways. If the OH at C1 is below the plane of the ring, it is called an α Glucose, if the OH at C1 is above the plane of the ring, it is called β Glucose. This difference in structure leads to a difference in properties.
Monosaccharides can be bonded together (for example, to produce a disaccharide, or maybe even a polysaccharide, like Starch) with a Condensation Reaction, forming a Glycosidic Bond. This bond can be broken by Hydrolysis. The bond is named after the Carbon atoms that are involved in the bond, for example, the bond between two Glucose molecules in Amylose is called a (1→4) Glycosidic Bond, as the bond is between C1 of one monomer and C4 of another.